All the plants which are used as medicine for different diseases and health hazards are called medicinal plants. Nepal is rich in such natural plants having medical benefits. There are many medicinal plants in mountain, tarai and hilly regions. If Nepal process these medicinal plants and sell in the market .It can be processed further for earning. Medicinal plant has very important role in our daily life. It use is traditional in the society. In Nepal, there are 700 types of medicinal plant found in different region. These herbs and plants reduce and abolish the diseases and health problems. They are the natural gift for human being. Treatment from these plants has no side effects. We can export the herbs and medicinal plant as well to become economically stable. Some of the examples of such medicinal plants are: Amala, Ghukumari, Bojho, Tulsi, Haro, Barro, Timur, Neem, Ghodatpre, Titepati, Asuro, Chiraito, Yarsyagumba, Panchaule, Thulo okhati, Jatamasi, Panilhro etc.
Amala called Phyllanthus emblica in English. Amala is found in jungle. Roots, branches, leaves flower and fruits of this plant are useful. It is the source of vitamin "C". It is major component to make Chayvanprash and Triphala. It works as energizer if taken one spoon each morning. It is used as medicine for diseases like scurvy, bad smelling of mouth, hair falls, diarrhea, tuberculosis and jaundice.
Ghukumari is Aloevera. It has sticky and jelly liquid juice inside the leaves. This liquid can be used in pain. If take one spoon liquid juice with water, it gives relief to constipation, acidity, menstruation, pain headache etc. It is beneficial for liver related disease, blood pressure and sugar.
Bojho means Sweet flag, is a evergreen plant. The root of this plant is used as medicine. It reliefs teeth pain, cough, diarrhea, fever, indigestion etc.
Tulsi's English name is Holy basil. It is planted in the home. Its leaves, flowers, seeds and branches are useful. It has pleasant odour. It is antiviral, anti bacterial and antifungal plant. It helps for the treatment of the cough, common cold, if taken with black peper and turmeric powder. It's intake helps in purification of the blood.
Barro (Belliric myrobalan) is a big tree. It is found in hilly region. The fruit of this tree is used as medicine. It is used as medicine for the health problems like fever, blood pressure, indigestion and headache.
Timur (Tootheache tree) is found in Hilly region. Barks, fruits and flowers are useful. It is useful in teeth pain, skim problems, indigestion and nasal problem.
Titepati (Mug wort) is found in Hilly region. Whole part of the plant is used for medicine. Fever, eye pain and wound are relieved by this plant. It helps to avoid bad smell if the leaf is kept in foot or shocks for few days. It is boiled and used in the joint to reduce joint pain. It also balances the side effects of acupuncture.
Asuro (Justicia addhatoda) found in 1200 meter from the sea level. Its leaves have unpleasant odor. The leaves are 10-15 cm long. Fruits and leaves of this plant are useful. It is used as medicine in the disease like T.B., cough, fever etc. It is also used as pesticides by the farmer.
It is also called Adhatoda vasika, which is derived from a former scientific name. It has different names in different Indian languages.
- sinhala: pawatt, agaladara
- Malayalam: Atalotakam
- Sanskrit: Sinhapuri, Vasaka (वसाका)
- Hindi: Adosa, Arusha, Rus, Bansa
- Bengali: Adulsa, Bakash,Vasok
- Gujarati: Aradusī, Adulso, Aduraspee, Bansa
- Kannada: Adusogae
- Marathi: Adulsa, Adusa (अडुळसा)
- Oriya: Basanga
- Persian: Bansa
- Punjabi: Bhekkar
- Tamil: Adathodai, pavettai
- Telugu: Adamkabu, Adampaka, Addasaram
- Nepali: Asuro, Kalo vasak (नेपाली)
- Mizo: Kawldai
Neem (Neem margopa tree) every part of this plant is useful. It is also antiviral, anti bacterial, anti fungal plant. It is useful for diseases like skin disease, sugar, impure blood, weak teeth, bleeding from teeth, bad smell from mouth etc. We can take bath with the boiled water of its leaves to avoid skin allergy.
Man has developed many technologies for their use since the beginning of human civilization. many technologies that are assisting us in different ways. This kind of technology is called local technology. In other word, technology that people use to assist their activities in daily life is called local technology. Traditional technologies are more sustainable, cheap and reliable as well. They are based on local resources and skill. So they are environment friendly. These local technologies do not need any energy. In Kathmandu valley, local technologies persist in making statue and pottery. In Hilly region, carpet, plague, water grind mill are the prevailing technology. Nepal is rich in diversity in terms of biology, culture, geography and natural resources. So, local technologies are good to use in occupations. Many technologies are in practice from many years in Nepal. Nepal is an agricultural country. Many local technologies were used for farming. These technologies are replaced by modern technologies now a day. Some traditional technologies are still in use. Some local technologies are given below.
Dhiki is mill of village area. Rice is made by paddy after bitten in Dhiki . food grains like paddy, wheat, corn etc. These can be grinded from the mill.
|Dhiki in Village|
Aaran is a kind of oven which is made on the ground. Coal is burnt to produce heat and fire. The oxygen needed for burning is supplied through one side in which hand pumping machine is usually fitted.
It is used for sharpening the iron rod. During the process, the copper or iron is heated in very high temperature so that those materials get melted and they can be converted into any shape we want to make out of them.
Boat is kind of local transportation technology. Its mad by wood. It is risky transportation . If the man could not cross the river then it is used to cross the river.
|Boat in Sunkoshi River|
It is a kind of local transportation technology. It is a wood box which is hanged in an iron rope with the help of pulley. Iron rope is supported by the pillar in both sides of the river. People sit in the box and pull the iron rope that will make wood box to move towards other side.
It is used in absence of bridge. If there is no bridge in river, tuin is the only option that can be used to cross the river. This is cheap local technology.
Pottery is a local technology that is used to make pots from the clay. Clay is mixed properly and placed in the circle made up of wood. There is a small hole in the middle of the circle in which iron rod is inserted. The circle is rolled along with the clay. Proper shape is given to the clay by hand. The pot is placed in sun light and dried. Then it will be ready to use.
Water Grinding Mill
Flour is made by grinding the food grains like paddy, wheat, corn etc. These can be grinded from the mill. Water grinding mill is kind of mill that is operated from water energy. It is very useful technology for the place where there are rivers but not electricity. The mill moves the stone plate with the force of flow of water. When the stone plate rolls, grains are inserted in between the stone plate. Flour is produced after grinding the grain in between the stone plate.
Khukuri is made up of iron which is mad in Aaran. It is very useful local technology . It use make the pieces of vegetable, meet, wood etc. It is our national weapon. Its thinner part is sharpened to cut the things. its cover mad by leather or wood.
|Khukuri made in Aaaran|
Pastry Board and Rolling Pin
We can make varieties of food items from wheat flour. Pastry board and rolling pin is useful in making chapatti item. These tools are made from wood. Pastry board is circular in shape. Rolling pin is cylindrical in shape. When flour is ready to roll it is put into the pastry board and rolled it by the rolling pin to give the chapatti a circular shape.
Plough use to dig the field for farmingPlough is used to dig the field. Nowadays, tractor is used in place of wood plough with iron plate for digging the field in the terai region. but in mountain and hilly region plough is still used. Pair of bulls or buffalo is used to plough the field.
Another major tool used in agriculture is sickle. It is used to cut grass, plant and vegetable. Its shape is like question mark (?) . The inner part of the sickle, which is very sharp, is used for cutting.
Spade is used to dig the field by hand. Front part of spade is made from iron. There is a slot at the back of the iron and wood stick is inserted tightly in the slot. Front part of iron is sharpened. Field is dug with the help of this part.